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© 2009 - 2018 Systemarchitects Partnership

Viru Viru International

Analysis on contemporary Airport planning and the future challenges

for the passengers and cargo hub Viru Viru International

This is a summary of a document elaborated in October 2016 with the purpose of pointing out a number of key issues that will have to be considered in the scheme design phase of the airport expansion project Viru Viru passenger and cargo Hub, currently the air traffic terminal with the highest capacity in Bolivia. The complete document was ellaborated to guide local authorities in the process of consultation and discussion with specialized planners on the master planning of the project.

Background

Back in the 1960s the Bolivian government understood the need to establish a large airport as passenger and cargo hub to serve the eastern region of the country. Eventually the airport was built with Japanese technical and financial support and entered into service in 1984. The master plan included initially a scheme that would double the capacity of the airport in its first phase layout. However, the Bolivian authorities did not undertake the necessary measures to realize its counterpart. Today the airport and services have reached its full capacity. Because of its advantageous location within the South American subcontinent, a full implementation at least of the initial scheme is considered imperative to serve the current demand.

Market Expectations

What does an airline look for in an airport? The expectations of an air carrier can be summarized to market demand (freight or passengers) and a high efficiency of ground services and air traffic control. In past decades, the high competition in the global civil aviation market has brought up remarkable adjustments in the operation strategies of airline groups. The 9/11 attacks were the point of inflection of a continuous aggravation, which still lasts nowadays. Therefore, air carriers concentrate their efforts on keeping their fleet in service and not on the ground, which means that they will only connect terminals that offer highly efficient services. Basically this means that, in order to increase the number of daily operations of a medium range twin jet airliner, each lay-over must not last more than 30 minutes. Can Viru Viru Internacional Hub drive the civil aviation industry in Bolivia as a stand-alone high capacity airport? A large hub needs to perfectly coordinate numerous elements to reach competitiveness. Among these factors are safety, accessing and connectivity to the major urban centres, logistics, ATC, meteorology, risk management and emergency preparedness, etc. These issues need to be tackled with adequate investment in technology and human resources. As well, they demand a high coordination between primary airports at national scale, because each primary airport of the network will affect the system if it fails. In other terms, the profitability of an air carrier operation is directly proportional to the efficiency of the domestic network of airports. For that matter, any failure in the operability of an airport within the network will hold operations in other airports, affecting as well their services and the performance of their clients.

Efficient Design Requirements

What should Viru Viru Hub targets be in terms of operability and efficiency? The check in time, including passport control and security scrutiny should allow a passenger in average a time span of 40 min between their arrival to the airport and their arrival to their assigned gate. In Europe some airlines guarantee their passengers boarding if they arrive 40mins before departure time, and even 20 minutes if they don’t have baggage to check, provided the passenger uses the electronic check in service on line. Air carriers will opt to use airports that have efficiency records that meet their expectations and so will passengers do. Automated systems for baggage drop off and check in are becoming standard in the largest terminals and contribute to increased efficiency. Which other factors are today indispensable when designing an efficient airport? The answer to this question is too complex for a short statement. However, if there is a feature that successful airports share, it is a design which is capable to anticipate to the changes that the market demands. This also means that they feature flexibility to adapt accordingly. Therefore is it usual to constantly observe here and there areas under construction or under redevelopment in busy terminals. These works must be undertaken during normal operations and without causing major obstructions. Airports must be kept up to date to compete. This is a crucial factor that has to be considered on the design phase. Viru Viru Hub foresees the construction of a second runway. The market growth might demand a third runway by the time the expansion is finished. However, there is no space to build a third runway in the airport grounds. If this becomes a limitation for competitiveness, the decision about how to deal with it has to be taken before starting the site works. Risks of an insufficient design The new airport Berlin Brandenburg International, which is being built since 2005, has implementation difficulties due to poor management and faulty execution. The initial opening 2012 was several times postponed until (now) 2020. However, today it is evident that by the time of opening the airport’s initial capacity of 27 million pax/year will be insufficient to satisfy the market demand of about 40 million pax/year. Planning had to be adapted to increase the final capacity, contemplating even the option to redesign the complete airport. Several airlines eventually sued the operators (i.e. regional and federal government) claiming compensations for loss of profit and redundant investments. The case of Berlin Brandenburg International underlines the importance of realistic planning and strict scheduling of large scale projects, because of the difficulty to anticipate the troubles that delays during the building phase will bring.

Financial Risks

Is it wise to concentrate public investment in Santa Cruz on that scale? The short answer is no. The commercial air traffic in Bolivia has developed positively in the last decade, by a rate of around 10% avg. per year. This growth requires considerable investment to improve all terminals that serve metropolitan areas, and not just Viru Viru, to ensure that the aviation sector remains competitive and fulfils its role. Despite of this well known fact, the three airports that build the so-called central axis (La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz de La Sierra) are operating beyond their capacity since several years. In Bolivia in particular, airports will continue to be essential for the domestic traffic, because of lacking highway and railway infrastructure, in combination with large distances between metropolitan areas. The constant growth of the middle class in the country consolidates this tendency. Envisaged market growth and location are not enough to attract private investment So far it is not being easy to attract partners to join the Viru VIru vision. Investors will always remain cautious before joining any flagship project. A current example is the proposed Thames Estuary Airport. The southeast of England concentrates one of the largest and most attractive metropolises in the world, backed by probably the most solid financial centre in the planet. The Greater London region however doesn’t have an airport that is capable of covering the existing market. It is instead served by several large and medium size airports (Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted), together with other smaller ones (Luton, London City). None of the airports could possibly provide sufficient expansion area to replace the other ones in a single site. Because of opposing citizen initiatives and environmental concerns, Heathrow Airport, one of the largest in the world and the one of highest passenger traffic in Europe, has not managed to realize the construction of a third runway, and operates at over 98% of its capacity most of the time. There is indeed a high number of proposals to increase capacities. Since the 1940s, Thames Estuary, an area in the eastern region of London at the river Thames, has been considered as an alternative location to concentrate all air traffic operations. But despite of the existing needs and success prospects, no option is considered financially viable or justifiable.

Environmental issues

The environmental footprint of aviation and airports concerns more than the effect of greenhouse gases and soil contamination caused by hydrocarbon and chemical residues that may filter into the ground. Nevertheless it should be mentioned here that last generation aircrafts flying at close to full capacity do not burn more fuel than combustion vehicles per passenger and same traveled distance. Noise is an underestimated challenge that has to be dealt with. The added stress for the areas surrounding Viru Viru, where population density has noticeably growth in the last years, will be severe, especially if the airport operates 24/7. Probably citizen resistance to the project will appear, because the environmental impact could rather depreciate the ground value, in contrast to what one would expect. Most successful airports are located on isolated sites with little habitation surroundings, like coastlines or islands. Their surrounding infrastructure may include accommodation infrastructure and staff housing, but their design is subject to special specifications to reduce their noise exposition. Still, special laws in many countries in Europe prohibit starts and landings between 11pm and 6am. The main runway of the airport in Zürich for instance has a North South Orientation, which means that because of the noise impact over German territory of approaching and starting aircraft, its operation is not permitted close to 11 pm and 6 am, which reduces the capacity of the airport.

Additional Issues to Consider

These are examples of future constraints that have to be considered for the design of Viru Viru Hub. Airbus 380 A brief proposal published by the Bolivian ministry of infrastructure in 2016 includes the interest on infrastructure development to meet the requirements for serving the Airbus A380. The ICAO Chicago convention in its annex 14 specifies different aircraft categories, for which airports need to be designed. The ideal scenario is to design an airport that is able to serve most of these aircraft categories, if not all of them, provided the market is available. In the case of the Airbus A380, this aircraft is specified under the reference code F, together with the Boeing 747-800 and any other aircraft with a wingspan measuring between 65 and 80m. Both are currently the largest passenger aircrafts in service. It is important to point out here, that in order to obtain the required certification, it would be necessary to upgrade the existing runway, taxiways, ramps, etc. Terminal design is not sufficient. Serving aircrafts of this size reduces also the total number of gates and stands, because of the area that they require. The need for a certification for serving VLAs (very large aircrafts) under code F is an issue that requires careful analysis. The reason is the unpredictable future of the role of these large aircraft, compared to the necessary investment. Not long ago, in July 2016, Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier stated in a press release that because of the low number of orders, the manufacturing of the Airbus A380 will be of 12 units per year, well below the number of 30 that are needed to cover the production costs. That would mean, the airliner will be produced despite of a net loss, only to meet pending deliveries. In fact, some airlines are trying to sell or lease their units to competitors since 2015. The reason is that most airlines prefer to have twin engine aircrafts in their fleet, which are less expensive in operation and maintenance, despite of the lower number of passengers. Smaller planes mean also more frequencies, which is preferred for frequent travellers in the business sector, a very profitable market sector. For these reasons it is actually a contestable decision whether to opt instead to prioritize smaller aircraft and keep open the options of a future adaptation. Logistics and cargo services There are no big secrets concerning the role of logistics in large air terminals. Viru Viru Hub has to incorporate the future role of eCommerce in Bolivia and the region. Nowadays the postal service in the country is not profitable, but it will certainly rise up because of the high demand of on line services and inland parcel delivery. According to Deutsche Post AG, the sector in Europe today grows at a yearly rate of 5-7%. Viru Viru Hub should incorporate automated systems for management and storage of postal services. A railway connection between the cargo terminal and the neighbour cities would as well improve the conditions without further congesting the road access to the airport. A railway connection should be anyway considered for passenger and staff transport. In a region with remarkable livestock farming, the transport of related goods, including animal breeding may benefit from adequate veterinary infrastructure. This should play a role in the airport expansion. Other topics Numerous other issues are to be considered in the design of large scale airports. Efficient energy use for lighting and climate control, services for staff, emergency response, health and safety (animal and human disease control), domestic safety and border control, automated provision of jetfuel, automated baggage handling, multimodal passenger transport to the metropolitan area and neighbour cities, dedicated parking facilities, etc.

Airport City

some examples in Germany

The need for “Non aviation” infrastructure surrounding an airport is an opportunity to generate revenue through the leasing of areas for shopping, gastronomy, offices, hotels, logistics and other services. Nowadays, these added services are a prime source of income for major airports. In many cases the development of major hubs has been combined with dedicated airport cities. They provide as well services and habitation to part-time and full-time staff, that can easily reach 50thousand people. There are several successful examples of infrastructure projects developed back to back to airports which host airline and logistics headquarters, exhibition centres, training facilities, etc. They benefit from an ideal location, excellent connection to multimodal traffic, parking, etc. This combination of facilities contributes to their attractiveness. Foreign visitors, such as airline crews and business people who arrive to the airport can develop their activities on site and don’t need to commute to the city, which reduces traffic congestion. Other services include public offices (not only customs and migration related), banks, hospitals, etc.  Existing examples are Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Zürich. International Airport Stuttgart Manfred Rommel Stuttgart Airport Stuttgart (ICAO: EDDS, IATA: STR) is the sixth largest airport in Germany based on transported passengers, and the busiest one of a single runway. It was awarded in 2014 as the best airport in Europe in the category 5-10 million passengers per year. The journey to the airport takes 27 minutes by car, bus or regional train from the city centre, and it can be reached also by car and bus from other neighbour locations through motorways and expressways. The airport’s capacity is 12 million passengers per year. Its last generation baggage process system handles 4800 pieces per hour, including a simultaneous X rays scanning. The capacity for parking vehicles is 11 000, and the exhibition fair located in the immediate vicinity provide additional 7 000 for peak times. The airport facility is managed by Flughafen Stuttgart GmbH, a public partnership by the Stuttgart municipality and the federal state of Baden Württemberg. 35% of the tital 220M € yearly turn over are generated in the “non-aviation” sector. The cargo areas can handle 160 000 tm per year. Storage areas comprise 20 600 sqm and the available office space is 11 600 sqm. Start and landing operations are suspended between 11pm and 6am (with some exceptions). The airport covers its heat and electric energy with a mix of on-site generation and a small portion bought from clean sources. 10 500 sqm of photovoltaic panels are distributed in two plants. Baggage delivery and follow-me vehicles are either electric or hydrogen driven. The airport is a member of the UNO Global Compact network that promotes corporate social responsibility. The local population is served by other airports in the region in a radius of under 2:30h driving time. Among them are Frankfurt, Karlsruhe/Baden, Memmingen and Zurich. Flughafen Stuttgart GmbH is planning an infrastructure complex called Airport City, which will include a high speed railway station, business and mixed use buildings for a budget of over 560 MM €. It will as well contain hotels, administrative buildings and a conference centre. Munich Airport Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport (ICAO: EDDM, IATA: MUC) is the second largest airport in Germany, the seventh largest in Europe and the 30th largest in the world. It is connects to 230 destinations by around 100 airlines. The operator society and owner, Flughafen München GmbH, is shared by the federal state of Baviera, the German state and the city of Munich. It has received several awards as the best airport in Europe, and the third best in the world after Singapur and Seoul. The airport is well connected with Munich and neighbour municipalities by motorways and public transport. It also has cycleways and covered parking for members of staff who commute by bicycles. The complex was innaugurated in 1992 but the planning process took 18 years, including the search for a location, design, disputes with involved municipalities and building phase. The physical move to the new airport was an outstanding achievement, because it succeeded within few hours, in the night between the 16th and the 17th May 1992. The successful transfer motivated international planning teams to request the cooperation of involved German engineers in similar processes, among them the airports in Bangkok and Athens. Its original design was upgraded only three years after its entry into service. Terminal T2 commenced operations in June 2003 and was designed in cooperation with Lufthansa, who financed 40% of the costs. Lufthansa has 125 aircraft based here (2016) and the airport is its second hub. Terminal 3 was innaugurated in April 2016, which raised the overall capacity to 61MM passengers per year. Baggage processing is sped up with a highly sophisticated 40km network of conveyor belts that processes 14 thousand pieces per hour. The system guarantees a connection time of 30 minutes for transit passengers. The jet fuel storage has a capacity of 30 thousand cubic meters, it is connected to an oil pipeline and has direct access to the railway network. 120 individual ramp positions can be directly supplied. Munich airport is serviced by 550 companies, which provide 35thousand jobs. A third runway is the only chance the airport has to increase their operations (from 90 to 120 per hour). According to experts, the airport achieved already maximal optimization. Frankfurt International Airport Frankfurt Main International (ICAO: EDDF, IATA:FRA) is the largest airport Germany, the 4th largest in Europe and the 11th largest in the World (2016). It is an operations hub for Lufthansa, Condor Flugdienst, SunExpress Deutschland and for the fright carriers Lufthansa Cargo and Nightexpress.   It is located 15 minutes (12km) southeast of the city and is serviced by a multimodal station in the north (high speed railway, metro, buses). Frankfurt airport displays in its architecture and evolution a successful story of solutions designed for passenger and freight services. Some of them were controversial and risky, but are regarded today as benchmarks in aeronautic engineering.   It has been under steady development and expansion. Current projects include a new terminal building in the south side and a commercial suburb in the north side (Gateway Gardens). In 2011 a business, leisure and hotel complex of 140 thousand sqm was inaugurated (The Squaire), the largest building in Germany.   The baggage handling system has outstanding figures: 70km conveyor belts process 18 thousand pieces per hour with an efficacy of 99,6%. The airport has a capacity of 65 million passengers per year, which will grow to 80 million with the new terminal. Around a hundred airlines fly to Frankfurt, it attracts an annual investment volume of a billion EUR and is the largest employer in Germany (80 thousand direct and 25 thousand indirect jobs in the region).   In average, its four runways count 91 operations per minute, which may reach its full capacity of 126 by 2020. Because of noise concerns, a difficult debate process between neighbour population and authorities resulted in a compromise solution that foresees two runways to be used only for landings and two only for starts. In addition, no operations are undertaken between 11pm and 5am.
RESEARCH FOR PLANNING
© 2006 - 2015 Systemarchi

Viru Viru

International

Analysis on contemporary

Airport planning and the future

challenges for the passengers

and cargo hub Viru Viru

International

This is a summary of a document elaborated in October 2016 with the purpose of pointing out a number of key issues that will have to be considered in the scheme design phase of the airport expansion project Viru Viru passenger and cargo Hub, currently the air traffic terminal with the highest capacity in Bolivia. The complete document was ellaborated to guide local authorities in the process of consultation and discussion with specialized planners on the master planning of the project.

Background

Back in the 1960s the Bolivian government understood the need to establish a large airport as passenger and cargo hub to serve the eastern region of the country. Eventually the airport was built with Japanese technical and financial support and entered into service in 1984. The master plan included initially a scheme that would double the capacity of the airport in its first phase layout. However, the Bolivian authorities did not undertake the necessary measures to realize its counterpart. Today the airport and services have reached its full capacity. Because of its advantageous location within the South American subcontinent, a full implementation at least of the initial scheme is considered imperative to serve the current demand.

Market Expectations

What does an airline look for in an airport? The expectations of an air carrier can be summarized to market demand (freight or passengers) and a high efficiency of ground services and air traffic control. In past decades, the high competition in the global civil aviation market has brought up remarkable adjustments in the operation strategies of airline groups. The 9/11 attacks were the point of inflection of a continuous aggravation, which still lasts nowadays. Therefore, air carriers concentrate their efforts on keeping their fleet in service and not on the ground, which means that they will only connect terminals that offer highly efficient services. Basically this means that, in order to increase the number of daily operations of a medium range twin jet airliner, each lay-over must not last more than 30 minutes. Can Viru Viru Internacional Hub drive the civil aviation industry in Bolivia as a stand-alone high capacity airport? A large hub needs to perfectly coordinate numerous elements to reach competitiveness. Among these factors are safety, accessing and connectivity to the major urban centres, logistics, ATC, meteorology, risk management and emergency preparedness, etc. These issues need to be tackled with adequate investment in technology and human resources. As well, they demand a high coordination between primary airports at national scale, because each primary airport of the network will affect the system if it fails. In other terms, the profitability of an air carrier operation is directly proportional to the efficiency of the domestic network of airports. For that matter, any failure in the operability of an airport within the network will hold operations in other airports, affecting as well their services and the performance of their clients.

Efficient Design

Requirements

What should Viru Viru Hub targets be in terms of operability and efficiency? The check in time, including passport control and security scrutiny should allow a passenger in average a time span of 40 min between their arrival to the airport and their arrival to their assigned gate. In Europe some airlines guarantee their passengers boarding if they arrive 40mins before departure time, and even 20 minutes if they don’t have baggage to check, provided the passenger uses the electronic check in service on line. Air carriers will opt to use airports that have efficiency records that meet their expectations and so will passengers do. Automated systems for baggage drop off and check in are becoming standard in the largest terminals and contribute to increased efficiency. Which other factors are today indispensable when designing an efficient airport? The answer to this question is too complex for a short statement. However, if there is a feature that successful airports share, it is a design which is capable to anticipate to the changes that the market demands. This also means that they feature flexibility to adapt accordingly. Therefore is it usual to constantly observe here and there areas under construction or under redevelopment in busy terminals. These works must be undertaken during normal operations and without causing major obstructions. Airports must be kept up to date to compete. This is a crucial factor that has to be considered on the design phase. Viru Viru Hub foresees the construction of a second runway. The market growth might demand a third runway by the time the expansion is finished. However, there is no space to build a third runway in the airport grounds. If this becomes a limitation for competitiveness, the decision about how to deal with it has to be taken before starting the site works. Risks of an insufficient design The new airport Berlin Brandenburg International, which is being built since 2005, has implementation difficulties due to poor management and faulty execution. The initial opening 2012 was several times postponed until (now) 2020. However, today it is evident that by the time of opening the airport’s initial capacity of 27 million pax/year will be insufficient to satisfy the market demand of about 40 million pax/year. Planning had to be adapted to increase the final capacity, contemplating even the option to redesign the complete airport. Several airlines eventually sued the operators (i.e. regional and federal government) claiming compensations for loss of profit and redundant investments. The case of Berlin Brandenburg International underlines the importance of realistic planning and strict scheduling of large scale projects, because of the difficulty to anticipate the troubles that delays during the building phase will bring.

Financial Risks

Is it wise to concentrate public investment in Santa Cruz on that scale? The short answer is no. The commercial air traffic in Bolivia has developed positively in the last decade, by a rate of around 10% avg. per year. This growth requires considerable investment to improve all terminals that serve metropolitan areas, and not just Viru Viru, to ensure that the aviation sector remains competitive and fulfils its role. Despite of this well known fact, the three airports that build the so-called central axis (La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz de La Sierra) are operating beyond their capacity since several years. In Bolivia in particular, airports will continue to be essential for the domestic traffic, because of lacking highway and railway infrastructure, in combination with large distances between metropolitan areas. The constant growth of the middle class in the country consolidates this tendency. Envisaged market growth and location are not enough to attract private investment So far it is not being easy to attract partners to join the Viru VIru vision. Investors will always remain cautious before joining any flagship project. A current example is the proposed Thames Estuary Airport. The southeast of England concentrates one of the largest and most attractive metropolises in the world, backed by probably the most solid financial centre in the planet. The Greater London region however doesn’t have an airport that is capable of covering the existing market. It is instead served by several large and medium size airports (Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted), together with other smaller ones (Luton, London City). None of the airports could possibly provide sufficient expansion area to replace the other ones in a single site. Because of opposing citizen initiatives and environmental concerns, Heathrow Airport, one of the largest in the world and the one of highest passenger traffic in Europe, has not managed to realize the construction of a third runway, and operates at over 98% of its capacity most of the time. There is indeed a high number of proposals to increase capacities. Since the 1940s, Thames Estuary, an area in the eastern region of London at the river Thames, has been considered as an alternative location to concentrate all air traffic operations. But despite of the existing needs and success prospects, no option is considered financially viable or justifiable.

Environmental issues

The environmental footprint of aviation and airports concerns more than the effect of greenhouse gases and soil contamination caused by hydrocarbon and chemical residues that may filter into the ground. Nevertheless it should be mentioned here that last generation aircrafts flying at close to full capacity do not burn more fuel than combustion vehicles per passenger and same traveled distance. Noise is an underestimated challenge that has to be dealt with. The added stress for the areas surrounding Viru Viru, where population density has noticeably growth in the last years, will be severe, especially if the airport operates 24/7. Probably citizen resistance to the project will appear, because the environmental impact could rather depreciate the ground value, in contrast to what one would expect. Most successful airports are located on isolated sites with little habitation surroundings, like coastlines or islands. Their surrounding infrastructure may include accommodation infrastructure and staff housing, but their design is subject to special specifications to reduce their noise exposition. Still, special laws in many countries in Europe prohibit starts and landings between 11pm and 6am. The main runway of the airport in Zürich for instance has a North South Orientation, which means that because of the noise impact over German territory of approaching and starting aircraft, its operation is not permitted close to 11 pm and 6 am, which reduces the capacity of the airport.

Additional Issues to Consider

These are examples of future constraints that have to be considered for the design of Viru Viru Hub. Airbus 380 A brief proposal published by the Bolivian ministry of infrastructure in 2016 includes the interest on infrastructure development to meet the requirements for serving the Airbus A380. The ICAO Chicago convention in its annex 14 specifies different aircraft categories, for which airports need to be designed. The ideal scenario is to design an airport that is able to serve most of these aircraft categories, if not all of them, provided the market is available. In the case of the Airbus A380, this aircraft is specified under the reference code F, together with the Boeing 747-800 and any other aircraft with a wingspan measuring between 65 and 80m. Both are currently the largest passenger aircrafts in service. It is important to point out here, that in order to obtain the required certification, it would be necessary to upgrade the existing runway, taxiways, ramps, etc. Terminal design is not sufficient. Serving aircrafts of this size reduces also the total number of gates and stands, because of the area that they require. The need for a certification for serving VLAs (very large aircrafts) under code F is an issue that requires careful analysis. The reason is the unpredictable future of the role of these large aircraft, compared to the necessary investment. Not long ago, in July 2016, Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier stated in a press release that because of the low number of orders, the manufacturing of the Airbus A380 will be of 12 units per year, well below the number of 30 that are needed to cover the production costs. That would mean, the airliner will be produced despite of a net loss, only to meet pending deliveries. In fact, some airlines are trying to sell or lease their units to competitors since 2015. The reason is that most airlines prefer to have twin engine aircrafts in their fleet, which are less expensive in operation and maintenance, despite of the lower number of passengers. Smaller planes mean also more frequencies, which is preferred for frequent travellers in the business sector, a very profitable market sector. For these reasons it is actually a contestable decision whether to opt instead to prioritize smaller aircraft and keep open the options of a future adaptation. Logistics and cargo services There are no big secrets concerning the role of logistics in large air terminals. Viru Viru Hub has to incorporate the future role of eCommerce in Bolivia and the region. Nowadays the postal service in the country is not profitable, but it will certainly rise up because of the high demand of on line services and inland parcel delivery. According to Deutsche Post AG, the sector in Europe today grows at a yearly rate of 5- 7%. Viru Viru Hub should incorporate automated systems for management and storage of postal services. A railway connection between the cargo terminal and the neighbour cities would as well improve the conditions without further congesting the road access to the airport. A railway connection should be anyway considered for passenger and staff transport. In a region with remarkable livestock farming, the transport of related goods, including animal breeding may benefit from adequate veterinary infrastructure. This should play a role in the airport expansion. Other topics Numerous other issues are to be considered in the design of large scale airports. Efficient energy use for lighting and climate control, services for staff, emergency response, health and safety (animal and human disease control), domestic safety and border control, automated provision of jetfuel, automated baggage handling, multimodal passenger transport to the metropolitan area and neighbour cities, dedicated parking facilities, etc.

Airport City

some examples in Germany

The need for “Non aviation” infrastructure surrounding an airport is an opportunity to generate revenue through the leasing of areas for shopping, gastronomy, offices, hotels, logistics and other services. Nowadays, these added services are a prime source of income for major airports. In many cases the development of major hubs has been combined with dedicated airport cities. They provide as well services and habitation to part-time and full- time staff, that can easily reach 50thousand people. There are several successful examples of infrastructure projects developed back to back to airports which host airline and logistics headquarters, exhibition centres, training facilities, etc. They benefit from an ideal location, excellent connection to multimodal traffic, parking, etc. This combination of facilities contributes to their attractiveness. Foreign visitors, such as airline crews and business people who arrive to the airport can develop their activities on site and don’t need to commute to the city, which reduces traffic congestion. Other services include public offices (not only customs and migration related), banks, hospitals, etc.  Existing examples are Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Zürich. International Airport Stuttgart Manfred Rommel Stuttgart Airport Stuttgart (ICAO: EDDS, IATA: STR) is the sixth largest airport in Germany based on transported passengers, and the busiest one of a single runway. It was awarded in 2014 as the best airport in Europe in the category 5-10 million passengers per year. The journey to the airport takes 27 minutes by car, bus or regional train from the city centre, and it can be reached also by car and bus from other neighbour locations through motorways and expressways. The airport’s capacity is 12 million passengers per year. Its last generation baggage process system handles 4800 pieces per hour, including a simultaneous X rays scanning. The capacity for parking vehicles is 11 000, and the exhibition fair located in the immediate vicinity provide additional 7 000 for peak times. The airport facility is managed by Flughafen Stuttgart GmbH, a public partnership by the Stuttgart municipality and the federal state of Baden Württemberg. 35% of the tital 220M € yearly turn over are generated in the “non-aviation” sector. The cargo areas can handle 160 000 tm per year. Storage areas comprise 20 600 sqm and the available office space is 11 600 sqm. Start and landing operations are suspended between 11pm and 6am (with some exceptions). The airport covers its heat and electric energy with a mix of on- site generation and a small portion bought from clean sources. 10 500 sqm of photovoltaic panels are distributed in two plants. Baggage delivery and follow-me vehicles are either electric or hydrogen driven. The airport is a member of the UNO Global Compact network that promotes corporate social responsibility. The local population is served by other airports in the region in a radius of under 2:30h driving time. Among them are Frankfurt, Karlsruhe/Baden, Memmingen and Zurich. Flughafen Stuttgart GmbH is planning an infrastructure complex called Airport City, which will include a high speed railway station, business and mixed use buildings for a budget of over 560 MM €. It will as well contain hotels, administrative buildings and a conference centre. Munich Airport Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport (ICAO: EDDM, IATA: MUC) is the second largest airport in Germany, the seventh largest in Europe and the 30th largest in the world. It is connects to 230 destinations by around 100 airlines. The operator society and owner, Flughafen München GmbH, is shared by the federal state of Baviera, the German state and the city of Munich. It has received several awards as the best airport in Europe, and the third best in the world after Singapur and Seoul. The airport is well connected with Munich and neighbour municipalities by motorways and public transport. It also has cycleways and covered parking for members of staff who commute by bicycles. The complex was innaugurated in 1992 but the planning process took 18 years, including the search for a location, design, disputes with involved municipalities and building phase. The physical move to the new airport was an outstanding achievement, because it succeeded within few hours, in the night between the 16th and the 17th May 1992. The successful transfer motivated international planning teams to request the cooperation of involved German engineers in similar processes, among them the airports in Bangkok and Athens. Its original design was upgraded only three years after its entry into service. Terminal T2 commenced operations in June 2003 and was designed in cooperation with Lufthansa, who financed 40% of the costs. Lufthansa has 125 aircraft based here (2016) and the airport is its second hub. Terminal 3 was innaugurated in April 2016, which raised the overall capacity to 61MM passengers per year. Baggage processing is sped up with a highly sophisticated 40km network of conveyor belts that processes 14 thousand pieces per hour. The system guarantees a connection time of 30 minutes for transit passengers. The jet fuel storage has a capacity of 30 thousand cubic meters, it is connected to an oil pipeline and has direct access to the railway network. 120 individual ramp positions can be directly supplied. Munich airport is serviced by 550 companies, which provide 35thousand jobs. A third runway is the only chance the airport has to increase their operations (from 90 to 120 per hour). According to experts, the airport achieved already maximal optimization. Frankfurt International Airport Frankfurt Main International (ICAO: EDDF, IATA:FRA) is the largest airport Germany, the 4th largest in Europe and the 11th largest in the World (2016). It is an operations hub for Lufthansa, Condor Flugdienst, SunExpress Deutschland and for the fright carriers Lufthansa Cargo and Nightexpress.   It is located 15 minutes (12km) southeast of the city and is serviced by a multimodal station in the north (high speed railway, metro, buses). Frankfurt airport displays in its architecture and evolution a successful story of solutions designed for passenger and freight services. Some of them were controversial and risky, but are regarded today as benchmarks in aeronautic engineering.   It has been under steady development and expansion. Current projects include a new terminal building in the south side and a commercial suburb in the north side (Gateway Gardens). In 2011 a business, leisure and hotel complex of 140 thousand sqm was inaugurated (The Squaire), the largest building in Germany.   The baggage handling system has outstanding figures: 70km conveyor belts process 18 thousand pieces per hour with an efficacy of 99,6%. The airport has a capacity of 65 million passengers per year, which will grow to 80 million with the new terminal. Around a hundred airlines fly to Frankfurt, it attracts an annual investment volume of a billion EUR and is the largest employer in Germany (80 thousand direct and 25 thousand indirect jobs in the region).   In average, its four runways count 91 operations per minute, which may reach its full capacity of 126 by 2020. Because of noise concerns, a difficult debate process between neighbour population and authorities resulted in a compromise solution that foresees two runways to be used only for landings and two only for starts. In addition, no operations are undertaken between 11pm and 5am.
RESEARCH FOR PLANNING
Systemarchi